Native American Trail
One of the most brutal massacres in American history took place at Fort Mims during the Creek Indian War. The Creeks, led by Red Eagle, took the fort killing all but about 36 of some 550 in the fort. The Creeks had been armed by the British at Pensacola in this phase of the War of 1812. The grave of Red Eagle and his mother SehoyIII of the Wind Clan are located about a mile from Fort Mims.
(for more information about any of these locations visit the Clarke County Historical Museum website or call them at 251-275-8684)
Choctaw Corner was northeast corner of the land ceded by the Indians to whites in Alabama. A 1765 Treaty gave England the land from this point south to the gulf. In 1808 this land was also the center of dispute between the Creeks and Choctaws. They settled the dispute by playing two ballgames; the Choctaws ultimately won.
The Kimbell-James Massacre occurred here, near present-day Whatley. The massacre took place on September 1, 1813, during the Creek War. Creek warriors led by the Prophet Francis descended upon the Kimbell House scalping and bludgeoning fourteen persons. The house was then scavenged and burned.
The Kimbell House, located in Jackson, was the home of Isham Kimbell. Isham was the only family member to survive the Kimbell-James Massacre in 1813. The home was built in 1848 on Commerce Street and moved to its present location in 1977.
Just of County Road 15, five miles south of Jackson near Carney’s Bluff, is the grave marker of Major Jeremiah Austill. He was a hero of the Canoe Fight, a nearby battle of the Creek War.
Fort Sinquefield was the site of the Kimbell-James massacre during the Creek War. The site is located just south of United States Highway 84 between Grove Hill and Whatley.
Fort Madison was a pioneer stockage commanded by Captain Samuel Dale and Evan Austill. Choctaw Chief Pushamataha often visited here. A marker commemorating this site is located near Manilla on the Suggsville-Gainestown Road.
Gainestown, a small community in southern Clarke County, was founded as a Choctaw-Creek trading post. The community was founded in 1809 by GeorgeStrother Gaines and was the largest river port between Selma and Mobile at one time.
A marker commemorating the Bashi Skirmish (October 4, 1813) is located in the Failetown community on a dirt road between Campbell and Woods Bluff. Thisskirmish occurred during the Creek War.
The Clarke County Museum located in Grove Hill includes many Native American artifacts. The artifacts include projectile points, tools from the Paleo-Indian and Mississippian periods, and artifacts from Fort Sinquefield.
(for more information contact the Evergreen Public Library at 251-578-2670)
The skirmish at Burnt Corn Creek was the commencement of the First Creek Indian War in July 1813. One hundred eighty Mississippi militia men attacked Creeks on their way back from Pensacola.
Battle Branch occurred eight miles south of Belleville; this was the second skirmish in the County between whites and Native Americans.
Old Town is believed to have been an important trading site for Native Americans and settlers. The site is known for the “Old Flag Tree,” which comes from the banner-like shape of its branches at the top. The tradition among early white settlers was the tree was a signal to the Indian traders passing from the Chattahoochee to Pensacola.
The Poarch Creek Indians are the only federally recognized Indian tribe in the State of Alabama. The tribe is a segment of the original Creek nation that occupied the majority of Georgia and Alabama until their removal in 1836. There are over 1,840 members of the tribe, of which approximately 1,000 live in or around Poarch, Alabama.
The 320 acre Moundville Archaeological Park provides the public an opportunity to learn about what was once one of the most powerful and largest Native American cities in North America. There are more than two dozen mounds within the park’s boundaries. The park’s museum also houses many Mississippian age artifacts excavated from within the park.
A marker commemorating the Holy Ground Battlefield is located two miles north of the Town of White Hall. In 1813 Red Eagle led the Creeks against General Claiborne and his Choctaw allies. The Creeks were forced to retreat with Red Eagle escaping by jumping his horse from a twelve foot bluff into the Alabama River.
(for more information contact 1-800-4MOBILE)
The MOWA Indian tribal headquarters and Choctaw cultural center are located just south of the Mobile/Washington County line in Mt. Vernon. The MOWA are descendants of the Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee, Mescalero, and Apache tribes. The cultural center traces the tribe’s history through time. Two powwows are held at the reservation each year.
Between 1887 and 1894, 400 Chiricahua Apache Indians from Arizona were imprisoned at the Mt. Vernon Barracks. Among the imprisoned was the famed Apache Geronimo. A marker commemorates this spot, which is now the site of Searcy hospital. The hospital is closed to the public.
The Museum of Mobile has an exhibit highlighting the Native American tribes of South Alabama. The museum’s exhibit focuses heavily on Bottle Creek (A.D. 1100 to 1400). Bottle Creek is a remote island in the Mobile-Tensaw delta on which eighteen earthen mounds exist.
The Alabama River Heritage Museum, located in Monroeville, houses a Native American exhibit that includes weapons, tools, and clothing. The collection spans from the pre-historic tribes through the Creek Indians that once occupied Monroe County.
Fort Claiborne was built by General Ferdinand L. Claiborne as a base for his invasion of the Alibamo country with U.S. Regulars, Lower Tombigbee Militia, and friendly Choctaws. Claiborne’s campaign was ultimately successful with the American victory over the Creeks at the Holy Ground during the Creek Indian
St. Stephens was situated on a high bluff the Indians called Hobucakintopa. Between 1790 and 1820 St. Stephens served as the site of a Spanish fort, an American fort and trading post, and the Alabama Territorial capital. Today at the St. Stephens Historical Park visitors can tour the historic town and partake in fishing, swimming, hiking, camping, and boating.